Carotenoids are organic pigments found in plant chloroplasts and some photosynthetic algae. dha algal oil in milk Carotene is a tetraterpene organic molecular pigment. There are more than 600 known carotenoids, which can be divided into two groups: lutein, which contains oxygen atoms in the molecule, and carotene, which contains only hydrocarbons but no oxygen atoms.

Carotenoids absorb blue light. beta carotene coloring It plays two key roles in plants and algae: absorbing light energy for photosynthesis and protecting chlorophyll from photooxidation. In humans, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, and beta-cryptoflavin are carotenoids that have vitamin A activity (that is, they can be converted into retinoids). These and other carotenoids are also used as antioxidants. Certain carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) absorb harmful blue and near-ultraviolet light directly in the eye, protecting the macula, the part of the eye that has clear vision. Cabio Biotech A diet rich in carotenoids from natural foods is beneficial to human health and can reduce mortality from many clinical diseases.

Carotenoids and their oxidation and enzymatic breakdown products (called carotenoids) are important for various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis and the assembly of photosystems and light-collecting antenna complexes for light protection, as well as the regulation of growth and development. Carotenoids are derived from two isomers of isoprene, isoprene diphosphate (IPP) and its allyl isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). These isoprene precursors also derive a variety of compounds, including tocopherol, chlorophyll, chloroplast quinone, gibberellin (GA), monoterpene, and plastoquinone. Alpha-carotene and beta-carotene are further hydroxylated to produce lutein (such as lutein and zeaxanthin), which is the main carotenoid pigment in the plant photosystem.

Photosynthesis is also unavoidable in order to produce highly reactive intermediates and by-products, the installation of photosynthesis can cause oxidative environmental damage and reduce the efficiency of photosynthesis education. Photosynthetic systems biotechnology has evolved a variety of photoconservation management mechanisms to cope with the socially damaging effects of light. Many antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) can alleviate the production of reactive molecules that cause these problems, especially for reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition to our basic informational functions as photoprotectants and antioxidants, carotenoids also act as "sensors" and "signals" that promote oxidative stress effects after ROS oxidation.

To support research into carotenoid metabolism in plant photosynthesis, the Agrisera brand offers a comprehensive range of proven, high-quality antibodies that are reactive in many plant species and cited in many scientific articles.